State and Federal Resources
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This section was designed as a resource of up-to-date state and federal laws pertaining to the practice of child and adolescent psychiatry.

Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is a comprehensive health care reform law enacted in March 2010 with primary goals, i.e, to make affordable health insurance available to more people; to expand the Medicaid program to cover all adults with income below 138% of the federal poverty level; and, to support innovative medical care delivery methods designed to lower the costs of health care generally.

Age of Majority from the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL)
The "age of majority" is the legal age established under state law at which an individual is no longer a minor and, as a young adult, has the right and responsibility to make certain legal choices that adults make.

Alcohol Policy Information System
The Alcohol Policy Information System (APIS) provides detailed information on a wide variety of Alcohol-Related Policies in the United States.

Americans with Disability Act (ADA) of 1990
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 prohibits discrimination and ensures equal opportunity for persons with disabilities in employment, state and local government services, public accommodations, commercial facilities, and transportation.

Automatic Emancipation
About half of the states do not provide a special court procedure for emancipation, so emancipation can only be achieved automatically, if a minor does one of the following: gets married, joins the Armed Forces, or reaches the age of majority.

Child Abuse and Neglect Reporting Contact Information by State
Each state, the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands has a system to receive and respond to reports of possible child maltreatment (abuse or neglect). They also designate specific agencies to receive and investigate reports of suspected child maltreatment. This responsibility is typically carried out by child protective services (CPS) within a Department of Social Services, Department of Human Resources, or Division of Family and Children Services. In some states, police departments may also receive reports of child abuse or neglect.

Child Custody Laws by State
Child custody is governed by state law. Depending on the state, unmarried (or divorcing) parents have a few different options available for how they would prefer to arrange custody, i.e., sole custody, physical custody, legal custody, joint physical custody, to joint legal custody.

Child Passenger Safety Laws
All states and territories require child safety seats for infants and children fitting specific criteria, but requirements vary based on age, weight and height. Often, this happens in three stages, i.e., infants use rear-facing infant seats, toddlers use forward-facing child safety seats, and older children use booster seats.

Child Welfare Information Gateway
The Child Welfare Information Gateway provides information pertaining to state statues on child abuse and neglect, child welfare and adoption.

Child Welfare Issues with Native American Children
This website provides resources on issues relevant to working with Native American children and families.

Children's Health Act of 2000
The Children's Health Act of 2000 reauthorizes SAMHSA programs that work to improve mental health and substance abuse services for children and adolescents.

Civil Commitment Criteria and Initiation Procedures by State
This website contains critical state-by-state information about civil commitment laws and criteria for inpatient and outpatient treatment, emergency hospitalization for psychiatric evaluation, and initiating proceedings for court-ordered intervention in a mental health emergency.

Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records (42 CFR Part 2)
This federal statute governs confidentiality for people seeking treatment for substance use disorders from federally assisted programs.

FDA Approved Psychotropic Agents
This website provides an up-to-date list of psychotropic agents.

Garrett Lee Smith Memorial Act of 2004
The Garrett Lee Smith Memorial Act of 2004 was the first legislation to provide funding specifically for youth suicide prevention programs.

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996
In 1996, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act ( HIPAA) was endorsed by the U.S. Congress, which provided the first nationally-recognizable regulations for the use/disclosure of an individual's health information.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) - US Department of Education
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a law ensuring services to children with disabilities throughout the nation. IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services to eligible infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities.

Landmark Cases
The American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (AAPL) selected landmark cases, which it considers especially important and significant for forensic psychiatry.

Marijuana Laws by State
This website provides state-specific laws on marijuana, including punishment for possession, sale, and trafficking.

Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008
The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 is a federal law that generally prevents group health plans and health insurance issuers that provide mental health and substance use disorder benefits from imposing less favorable benefit limitations on those benefits than on medical/surgical coverage.

Seclusion and Restraint Statutes, Regulations, Policies and Guidance, by State and Territory
On July 31, 2009, Secretary Duncan sent a letter to the states and territories urging them to develop or review and, if appropriate, revise their state policies and guidelines to ensure that every student in every school under its jurisdiction is safe and protected from being unnecessarily or inappropriately restrained or secluded. This website summarizes the state and territorial policies regarding seclusions and restraints that resulted from these discussions in order to share information that will help protect all students.

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Section 504 is a federal law designed to protect the rights of individuals with disabilities in programs and activities that receive Federal financial assistance from the U.S. Department of Education. Section 504 provides: "No otherwise qualified individual with a disability in the United States . . . shall, solely by reason of her or his disability, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance..."

Statutory Rape - A Guide to State Laws and Reporting Requirements - US Department of Health and Human Services
This is a guide to state laws and reporting requirements pertaining to statutory rape.

Tobacco Laws by State
This website provides state-specific laws on tobacco. The federal law requires states to have a minimum age of 18 years for sale/purchase of tobacco products (21 U.S.C. § 387f. (3)(a)(ii)). State laws may extend this ban and also prohibit supply, possession and consumption to/by person underage.

United States Government Accountability Office (GAO)-Seclusion and Restraints
In 2009, the US Government Accountability Office (GAO) testified before the Education and Labor Committee in the US House of Representatives regarding allegations of death and abuse at residential programs for troubled teens.