Diagnosis and Prevalence


Psychiatric and Behavioral Co-occurring Disorders

Racial Disparities in ASD

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Articles



Treatment





Therapy

  • Keefer A, White SW, Vasa RA, Reaven J. Psychosocial interventions for internalizing disorders in youth and adults with ASD. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2018;30(1):62-77. doi:10.1080/09540261.2018.1432575.    
    A review summarizing psychosocial interventions in youth and adults, for internalizing disorders in ASD, of which CBT modified for ASD is the most frequently investigated. Other emerging interventions are discussed, as well as barriers to accessing them, and future research directions.

  • Roane, H. S., Fisher, W. W., & Carr, J. E. (2016). Applied Behavior Analysis as Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Pediatr, 175: 27-32.
    A summary of the use of ABA therapy in autism spectrum disorders. This is great for those who want a summary for teaching or quick review if new to treating those with autism.

Psychopharmacology


Genetic Syndromes

  • Ornoy A, Fudim LW-, Ergaz Z. Genetic Syndromes, Maternal Diseases and Antenatal Factors Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2016;10. doi:10.3389/fnins.2016.00316.
    This article is useful when looking or a single article to touch on the common genetic syndromes associated with autism spectrum disorder and their features when considering testing, for review, or for learners.

  • Lozano R, Azarang A, Wilaisakditipakorn T, Hagerman RJ. Fragile X syndrome: A review of clinical management. Intractable & Rare Diseases Research. 2016;5(3):145-157. doi:10.5582/irdr.2016.01048.
    Fragile X is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability worldwide and the leading monogenetic cause of ASD.   This paper is a review of the current state of science, clinical manifestation, and treatment for individuals with Fragile X Syndrome. 

  • Tang KL, Antshel KM, Fremont WP, Kates WR. Behavioral and Psychiatric Phenotypes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. 2015;36(8):639-650. doi:10.1097/dbp.0000000000000210.
    This single genetic disorder is known by several name including DiGeorge Syndrome, Velocardiofacial Syndrome, Shprintzen syndrome, and conotruncal anomaly facial syndrome and is one of the most characterized microdeletion syndromes. The article summaries current research and psychiatric co-occurring disorders in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

  • Caraballo RH, Cejas N, Chamorro N, Kaltenmeier MC, Fortini S, Soprano AM. Landau–Kleffner syndrome: A study of 29 patients. Seizure. 2014;23(2):98-104. doi:10.1016/j.seizure.2013.09.016.
    Landau-Kleffner is a seizure disorder which also results in intellectual disability, acquired loss of expressive language and often significant behavioral issues that lead to presentation in psychiatry. This paper is a review of current knowledge in Laudau-Kleffner Syndrome.

  • Vries PJD, Whittemore VH, Leclezio L, et al. Tuberous Sclerosis Associated Neuropsychiatric Disorders (TAND) and the TAND ChecklistPediatric Neurology. 2015;52(1):25-35. doi:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2014.10.004.
    Tuberous Sclerosis is associated with intellectual disability and a high rate of psychiatric co-occurring disorders.  This paper discusses these common psychiatric disorders and a method for evaluation. 

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Articles



Behavioral Therapy




Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

  • Wang X, Zhao J, Huang S, et al. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review.Pediatrics. 2021;147(5).
    This article attempts to evaluate the effectiveness of CBT on the symptoms of ASD and social-emotional problems in children or adolescents with ASD by using a meta analytic approach. The study finds statistically significant improvement in social emotional problems on informant-based report but not on self-report, which may reflect difficulty that individuals with ASD may have in identifying emotional states. Need for better quality studies in this area was highlighted.

  • Wood JJ, Kendall PC, Wood KS, et al. Cognitive Behavioral Treatments for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2020;77(5):474-483. 
    This was a multicenter RCT compared relative efficacy of 2 CBT programs (Coping Cat) and CBT modified for ASD vs. TAU. In this study, adapted CBT approach (which included perspective taking training and behavior analytics) was more efficacious for children with ASD and interfering anxiety as compared to CBT and TAU. 

  • Vasa RA, Carroll LM, Nozzolillo AA, et al. A systematic review of treatments for anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2014;44(12):3215-3229.
    This article reviews both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment methods for anxiety in ASDs. This article delineates the types of anxiety diagnoses targeted  and whether certain types of symptoms of anxiety were more responsive to particular therapies.

Social Skills Training


Applied Behavioral Analysis


Other Therapies

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Articles



Genetics



ASD

  • Wang X, Zhao J, Huang S, et al. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review.Pediatrics. 2021;147(5).
    This article attempts to evaluate the effectiveness of CBT on the symptoms of ASD and social-emotional problems in children or adolescents with ASD by using a meta analytic approach. The study finds statistically significant improvement in social emotional problems on informant-based report but not on self-report, which may reflect difficulty that individuals with ASD may have in identifying emotional states. Need for better quality studies in this area was highlighted.

  • Wood JJ, Kendall PC, Wood KS, et al. Cognitive Behavioral Treatments for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2020;77(5):474-483. 
    This was a multicenter RCT compared relative efficacy of 2 CBT programs (Coping Cat) and CBT modified for ASD vs. TAU. In this study, adapted CBT approach (which included perspective taking training and behavior analytics) was more efficacious for children with ASD and interfering anxiety as compared to CBT and TAU. 

  • Vasa RA, Carroll LM, Nozzolillo AA, et al. A systematic review of treatments for anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2014;44(12):3215-3229.
    This article reviews both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment methods for anxiety in ASDs. This article delineates the types of anxiety diagnoses targeted  and whether certain types of symptoms of anxiety were more responsive to particular therapies.

Intellectual Developmental Disorder


Down Syndrome


22q


Williams Syndrome

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