Training and Education

The section provides educational resources about ethical issues in the education of CAP for medical students, residents and fellows.

Related Ethics Links

A listing of the webinars created by the AACAP Ethics Committee.

Education on ethics is essential for all aspects of child and adolescent psychiatry practice and all levels of practitioners, from students, residents to practitioners. While there are a range of approaches to teaching ethics, crucial aspects include helping participants develop a framework for: identifying and analyzing ethical issues; recognizing and determining own values and standards; and developing problem solving strategies and interventions.

  1. Dingle A, DeJong S, Madaan V, Ascherman L. Teaching ethics in child and adolescent psychiatry: vignette-based curriculum. MedEdPORTAL Publications. 2016;12:10418.
  2. Dingle AD, Stuber ML. Ethics education. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2008 Jan;17(1):187-207, xi. Review. PubMed PMID: 18036486.
  3. Peek HS, Richards M, Muir O, Chan SR, Caton M, MacMillan C. Blogging and Social Media for Mental Health Education and Advocacy: a Review for Psychiatrists. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2015 Nov;17(11):88. doi: 10.1007/s11920-015-0629-2. Review. PubMed PMID: 26377948.
  4. Sondheimer A. Teaching ethics and forensic psychiatry: a national survey of child and adolescent psychiatry training programs. Acad Psychiatry. 1998 Winter;22(4):240-52. PubMed PMID: 11658168.
  5. Sondheimer A, Martucci LC. An approach to teaching ethics in child and adolescent psychiatry. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1992 May;31(3):415-22. PubMed PMID: 1592772.

Code of Federal Regulations
Title 45:
Public Welfare, Part 46
(45 CFR 46)

The Code of Federal Regulations Title 45: Public Welfare, part 46 (45 CFR 46) provides protection for human subjects in research carried out or supported by most federal departments and agencies. 45 CFR 46, includes five subparts:

  • Subpart A - Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects (also known as the Common Rule);
  • Subpart B - Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research;
  • Subpart C - Additional Protections Pertaining to Biomedical and Behavioral Research Involving Prisoners as Subjects;
  • Subpart D - Additional protections for children; and,
  • Subpart E - Registration of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs).


Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP)

The Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) provides leadership in the protection of the rights, welfare, and wellbeing of human subjects involved in research conducted or supported by the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).


The Secretary's Advisory Committee on Human Research Protections


The Secretary's Advisory Committee on Human Research Protections (SACHRP) provides expert advice and recommendations to the Secretary of HHS on issues pertaining to the protection of human subjects in research.


American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)

Guidelines for the Ethical Conduct of Studies to Evaluate Drugs in Pediatric Populations

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) provides guidelines regarding testing of drugs in the pediatric population reference, in two articles.

The first is from 1977:


And, the "current" (2010) version:



  1. Decoding Iceland: "Genethics" at the Millennium (AACAP News, January/February 2000)

Other Articles

  1. Chen DT, Shepherd LL. When, why, and how to conduct research in child and adolescent psychiatry: practical and ethical considerations. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2009 Jun;32(2):361-80. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2009.03.003. PubMed PMID: 19486819.
  2. Hein IM, Troost PW, de Vries MC, Knibbe CA, van Goudoever JB, Lindauer RJ. Why do children decide not to participate in clinical research: a quantitative and qualitative study. Pediatr Res. 2015 Jul;78(1):103-8. doi: 10.1038/pr.2015.74. Epub 2015 Apr 9. PubMed PMID: 25856170.
  3. Kölch M, Ludolph AG, Plener PL, Fangerau H, Vitiello B, Fegert JM. Safeguarding children's rights in psychopharmacological research: ethical and legal issues. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16(22):2398-406. Review. PubMed PMID: 20513231.
  4. Sondheimer A. Ethics and risk management in administrative child and adolescent psychiatry. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2010 Jan;19(1):115-29. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2009.08.002. Review. PubMed PMID: 19951811.